Retort Machine Training Materials
This is the training information of the retort machine knowledge of Zhucheng Zhongyuan Machinery Co., Ltd., JOOYAN which is used by manufacturers of retort machine all over the world. More retort machine translation information contact firstname.lastname@example.org
The retort machine is also called a sterilization kettle. The retort machine is a device for killing bacteria. Usually, high temperature and high pressure are used to promote bacterial protein denaturation, destroying its cell wall structure and causing its vitality.
China’s traditional high-temperature sterilization generally uses water bath sterilization and steam sterilization. We often say that water killing and steam killing are two sterilization methods. In the 1990s, in order to meet the special product production requirements such as flexible packaging, we began to introduce double from Japan. In the new century, European countries such as Spain, Germany, France and other European countries have launched a spray-type sterilizer with heat exchanger to achieve high temperature and energy saving, short-term high efficiency, in order to save energy and water resources. Save water and other purposes.
The main production belt of sterilizer in China is Shandong Zhucheng. JOOYAN Machinery is the backbone enterprise of Zhucheng sterilizing pot industry.
Zhucheng Zhongyuan Machinery Co., Ltd. is a professional operator integrating design, development, manufacturing, marketing and service of food sterilization equipment products. It has formed a collection of raw material supply, product development, process design, finished product inspection, production and operation, storage and transportation. , a comprehensive company operating system that integrates technical services.
Founded in 2001, the company has a registered capital of 10 million yuan, has passed ISO9001:2008 quality system certification, and has the national pressure vessel manufacturing qualification (certificate number: TS22372142019), with self-support import and export rights. The company has more than 100 employees, 37 middle and senior technical management personnel, covers an area of more than 20 acres, and the production workshop covers an area of over 8,000 square meters.
Mainly engaged in the production of food retort machines, sandwich pots, cooking pots, woks and air showers and other food machinery. The company has an advanced machining center, a fully automatic welding center and a full set of inspection equipment.
The main products are: double-layer water bath type retort machine, top spray side spray type retort machine, rotary type retort machine, double-door retort machine, and various types of products such as tilting, fixed vertical, stirring type sandwich cooking pot, etc.
Advantages of JOOYAN Sterilizer:
1. Fully automatic PLC control.
In the control concept, we do not simply use PID control, but according to the specificity of the temperature and pressure control of the sterilization process, different control concepts are applied in different sterilization processes, eliminating the overshoot of the temperature at the beginning of the constant temperature. The temperature inside the tank is controlled at ±0.2°C. The multi-stage temperature control ensures temperature control, constant temperature and temperature reduction segmentation control and adds a powerful delay function.
2. High fidelity pressure simulation curve control.
It ensures the pressure control of the sterilization process of all products. The timeliness and accuracy of the pressure control eliminates any additional pressure and back pressure process before sterilization and temperature reduction, ensuring the sterilization of special products sensitive to pressure.
3. Multi-sterilization process can store memory.
A sterilizer can store multiple sterilization formulas, and can also easily input new sterilization formulas on site, suitable for one-pot production of a variety of products.
4. Operational visibility is strong.
The powerful display function of the display allows the operator to master the entire sterilization process in a timely manner. The perfect human-machine dialogue function allows the operator to easily complete the operation.
5. Real-time remote control.
Sterilization temperature recording system technology, the control system is connected with the computer through RS485 communication, the system can display the whole sterilization control process in real time, and the temperature and pressure curve of the sterilization process can be automatically stored in the computer, which can be accessed by the user at any time. Print at any time for factory remote control and remote data management.
6. Original emergency water stop gas blackout safety control system.
The unique water stop and power outage safety control system ensures manual operation when an emergency occurs. In the daily operation, there is a setting to prevent accidental opening, which ensures the normal operation of the equipment and ensures the personal safety of the operator.
This training starts from the common sense of pressure vessel, the basic knowledge of sterilizing pot, the operation of sterilizing pot, the common fault handling, and the handling of emergency measures. It uses theory and practical methods to cover the basic theory that sterilizer marketing should master. Knowledge, easy to understand, and strong use, it is convenient for timely guidance and help to customers in the actual work.
Chapter 1 retort machine Operation Requirements
First, the operator must undergo formal training, pass the examination, and obtain the “pressure vessel operator qualification certificate” issued by the safety supervision department, in order to independently undertake the operation of the retort machine, and must be certified to work;
Second, the retort machine operator must be familiar with the process of this post, the structure, main technical parameters and technical performance of the retort machine, strictly in accordance with the operating procedures;
Third, the retort machine operator should be able to master the method of handling general faults, and fill in the relevant records carefully;
Fourth, the retort machine operators must have a strong psychological quality and responsibility, bold and careful, timely discovery of equipment abnormal state and hidden dangers; in case of chaos, can calmly deal with various emergencies;
5. The sterilizer operator should continuously learn, sum up experience, and be proficient in the methods and techniques for correctly handling abnormal situations;
Sixth, the retort machine operators should take care of the equipment and operate the retort machine smoothly. It is necessary to avoid frequent and large fluctuations in temperature and pressure during operation of the equipment;
Seven, the retort machine operators should understand and master the daily maintenance and common knowledge of the equipment, so that the equipment is in good condition at all times;
Eight, the retort machine operators must resolutely perform the operating procedures, prohibiting the retort machine over temperature, overpressure, overload operation;
9. The sterilizer operator has the responsibility and authority to ensure the normal operation of the equipment, and can refuse and stop anyone’s illegal command.
Chapter II Basic Knowledge of Pressure Vessels
Basic knowledge of the first section of stress
First, the pressure
We call the force acting perpendicularly on the surface of the object the pressure; the force on the unit area is called the pressure. If used, it means P pressure; F means pressure; S means force area. then:
P (pressure) = F (pressure) / S (forced area)
The unit of force is represented by (Newton); the area unit is represented by m2 and cm2. The legal unit of measurement for pressure is “Pascal” and “Pa” is indicated by “pa”. 1 Pascal = 1 Newton/m2, ie 1 Pa = 1 N/m2. It uses the conversion relationship of the previous pressure unit kgf/m2 as:
Second, the atmospheric pressure
The surface of the earth is covered by a thick atmosphere. The atmosphere is attracted by the earth’s center to generate gravity. Therefore, the atmosphere surrounding the earth creates atmospheric pressure on the surface of the earth and the objects on it, the so-called atmospheric pressure. The thicker the atmosphere, the greater the pressure; the smaller the contrary. Therefore, the atmospheric pressure is not constant, and the atmospheric pressure of the mountain is smaller than that of the sea level. In order to calculate a uniform base point, in the past we have an atmospheric pressure of 1.033kgf/m2 at sea level (equivalent to 0.1MPa, MPa is read as MPa, 1 megagram = 1 million), or 760mm Hg is called 1 Standard atmospheric pressure, or a material pressure.
For the convenience of calculation, the pressure of 1kgf/cm2 (0.098MPa) is called 1 engineering atmospheric pressure. Its conversion relationship with standard atmospheric pressure is:
1 project atmospheric pressure = 0.968 standard atmospheric pressure = 735.6mmHg
If the water column height is used to calculate the pressure, the conversion relationship is:
Process parameters of the second section pressure vessel
First, the definition of pressure vessel
All closed containers under pressure are called pressure vessels, or pressurized vessels.
Second, the pressure vessel has three conditions:
1 Maximum working pressure (Pw) ≥ 0.1Mpa
2 inner diameter (non-circular cross section refers to its largest dimension) is greater than or equal to 0.15m, and the volume (V) is greater than or equal to 0.025m3;
3 The medium is gas, liquefied gas and liquid with a maximum working temperature higher than the standard boiling point.
Third, the saturated steam temperature and the corresponding pressure
0.2MPa-121°C 0.3MPa-132 °C
0.4MPa-143 °C 1.3MPa-194°C
4. Explanation of terms in common sense of pressure vessel
1. Working pressure – also referred to as operating pressure – refers to the pressure at the top of the vessel during normal process operation. (ie does not include hydrostatic pressure)
2. Maximum working pressure – refers to the maximum gauge pressure that may occur during the process operation of the top of the vessel. (ie does not include hydrostatic pressure)
3. Design pressure – refers to the pressure at which the container is calculated at the corresponding design temperature to determine the wall thickness and its component dimensions.
4. Medium temperature – refers to the temperature of the working medium in the container, which can be measured by a temperature measuring instrument.
5. Design temperature – The design temperature of the pressure vessel is different from the temperature that the internal medium may reach. It is the highest or lowest temperature that the wall or component metal may reach under the corresponding design pressure during normal working.
Section III Classification of Pressure Vessels
There are many types of pressure vessels, and the following are commonly used:
I. Classification by pressure
According to the level of pressure. Pressure vessels can be divided into four grades: low pressure, medium pressure, high pressure and ultra high pressure. The specific division is as follows:
1. Low pressure vessel 0.1MPa≤P<1.6MPa;
2. Low pressure vessel 1.6MPa≤P<10MPa;
3, low pressure container 10MPa ≤ P < 100MPa;
4, low pressure container P ≥ 100MPa;
Second, according to the shell pressure classification
1. Internal pressure vessel
2, external pressure vessel
Third, according to the design temperature classification
1, low temperature container t ≤ -20 ° C
2, room temperature container -20 ° C < t < 450 ° C
3, high temperature container t ≥ 450 ° C
Fourth, according to the perspective of security technology management
1. Fixed container – refers to a fixed installation and use location. The process conditions and the operating personnel are relatively fixed. Generally, it is not installed separately, but a container connected with pipes and other equipment.
2. Mobile container – refers to a storage container, such as a gas cylinder, a car tanker, etc., which is mainly loaded with a pressurized gas.
5. Classification according to the principle of action in the production process
1. The reaction pressure vessel (code R) is mainly used to complete the physical and chemical reaction of the medium, such as a reactor, a steaming ball, etc.;
2, heat exchange pressure vessel (code E), mainly used to complete the heat exchange of the medium pressure vessel, such as coolers, sterilizers, etc.;
3. Separation pressure vessel (code S), mainly used for pressure equalization buffer of medium and pressure separation of gas purification, such as separator, sub-cylinder, etc.;
4. Storage pressure vessel (code C, spherical tank code B), mainly used for storing and containing pressure vessels such as gas, liquid, liquefied gas, etc., such as various types of storage tanks.
Section 4 Safety Accessories for Pressure Vessels
First, the safety valve
The safety valve is the most commonly used safety relief device on pressure vessels. It reduces the excessive pressure in the container by automatically opening the discharge medium to the valve.
1. Structure and working principle of safety valve
Safety valve structure
The safety valve is mainly composed of three parts: valve seat, valve disc and loading mechanism. When the pressure in the container is within the specified working pressure range, the pressure of the medium acting on the valve flap is less than the force exerted by the loading mechanism on the valve, and the difference between the two forms a gap between the valve flap and the valve seat. The sealing force causes the valve flap to be pressed against the valve seat, and the gas in the container cannot be discharged; when the pressure in the container exceeds the prescribed working pressure and reaches the opening pressure of the safety valve, the force of the medium acting on the valve flap is greater than the loading mechanism above it. Then, the valve flap leaves the valve seat, the safety valve is opened, and the gas in the container is discharged through the valve seat.
2. If one of the following conditions occurs, the safety valve should be stopped and replaced:
1 The valve plug and seat of the safety valve are not tightly sealed and cannot be repaired;
2The valve plug of the safety valve is stuck to the valve seat or the spring is serious.
3 Safety valve selection is wrong.
Second, the pressure gauge
A pressure gauge is a gauge that measures the pressure. It can be used to measure the actual pressure of the container. The operator can operate the container according to the pressure indicated by the pressure gauge to control the pressure within the allowable range.
1. Structure and working principle of pressure gauge
At present, the pressure gauges we mainly use are mainly spring-loaded pressure gauges, which are composed of dials, spring bends, connecting rods, sector gears, pinions, central axes, pointers and other parts. When the pressure of the measured medium acts on the inner wall of the spring tube, the flat section of the spring tube has a tendency to expand into a circular shape, thereby extending outward from the fixed end, that is, moving the free end outward, and then driving through the connecting rod The sector gear and the pinion rotate, causing the pointer to deflect an angle in a clockwise direction. At this time, the scale value indicated by the pointer on the pressure dial is the pressure value in the pressure vessel. The greater the pressure inside the container, the greater the angle of deflection of the pointer. When the pressure is reduced, the spring bends the force to restore the original shape, and the upstream wire is pinned to return the pointer to the corresponding position. When the pressure disappears, the spring bend returns to its original shape and the pointer returns to the starting point (zero position).
2, the selection of pressure gauge
1 The pressure gauge selected must be compatible with the medium in the pressure vessel;
2 The accuracy of the pressure gauge used in the low pressure vessel should not be lower than 2.5;
3 The pressure gauge used in medium pressure and high pressure vessels should not be less than 1.5;
4 The pressure dial scale limit value should be 1.5-3 times of the maximum working pressure, and the dial diameter should not be less than 100mm.
3. In any of the following cases, the pressure gauge should be discontinued and replaced:
(1) The pressure gauge with limited nails, when there is no pressure, the pointer can not return to the limit nail; the pressure gauge of the infinite nail, when there is no pressure, the value of the pointer from the zero position exceeds the allowable error of the pressure gauge;
(2) The cover of the dial is peeled off; the glass is broken or the scale of the dial is blurred;
(3) The seal is damaged or exceeds the validity period of the verification;
(4) The spring tube leaks in the watch or the gauge pointer is loose
(5) The pointer is broken or the casing is seriously corroded;
(6) Other defects affecting the pressure gauge indication.
Third, the level gauge
A level gauge is a meter used to measure the liquid level of a liquid medium. The pressure vessel operator can adjust or control the amount of the liquid medium according to the level of the liquid level indicated by the liquid level gauge, thereby ensuring that the liquid level of the medium in the pressure vessel is always within the normal range of the design, and the overfilling is not caused. Accidents or unbalanced material reactions due to excessive feed.
1, glass tube liquid level gauge
Glass tube level gauge
The glass tube type liquid level gauge has a simple structure and is composed of an upper valve body, a lower valve body, a glass tube and a drain valve. Easy to install and maintain, usually in a container with a working pressure of less than 0.6mpa and a non-flammable, explosive or non-toxic medium.
2. If the following conditions are met, the level gauge should be stopped and replaced:
(1) Exceeding the inspection cycle;
(2) The glass tube is cracked or broken;
(3) the valve member is solid;
(4) A false water level occurs;
(5) The liquid level indication is blurred.
3, magnetic flap level gauge
Magnetic flap level gauge
The magnetic flap level gauge uses a magnetic float as the measuring component, and the magnetic steel drives the flip column display without energy. Suitable for low temperature to high temperature, vacuum to high pressure and other environments. It is an ideal level measurement product for industrial sectors such as petroleum and chemical industry. Magnetic flap level gauge Configure the upper and lower limit switch outputs to realize remote alarm and limit control. Magnetic flap level gauge Configure the transmitter to achieve remote indication, detection and control of the liquid level. Side and top mounts are available depending on where the container is installed. Depending on the working medium, stainless steel and ABS engineering plastics are available. ABS is especially suitable for corrosive media such as acid and alkali.
4, magnetic flap level gauge structure features:
l Basic type The level gauge is based on the buoyancy principle. The float moves up and down with the liquid level in the measuring tube. The permanent magnet in the float acts magnetically to drive the red and white flipping column to rotate 180. When the liquid level rises, the column turns from white to red, and when it falls, it turns from red to white, thus realizing the indication of the liquid level.
l Upper and lower limit switch output Use the magnetic float to move with the liquid level, so that the reed switch installed in the set position of the liquid level riser can be operated to realize ON-OFF control or alarm.
l Electric remote transmission Install the transmitter on the magnetic float level gauge. The transmitter consists of two parts: the sensor and the converter. It moves up and down through the magnetic float. Through the magnetic coupling, the measurement in the conduit is sequentially operated, and the resistance signal is changed and converted into a standard current signal of 0~10mA or 4~20mA. Output for connection to a digital display meter or computer for remote display.
Third, the thermometer
The thermometer is used to measure the temperature inside the container, and the pressure vessel operator can pass the thermometer. The temperature inside the container was observed. Correct observation of the temperature inside the container and adjustment of it within the normal range is very important for the safety and normal operation of the pressure vessel.
1. Commonly used thermometers for pressure capacity include glass thermometers, pressure thermometers, thermocouple thermometers, and bimetal thermometers.
2, the requirements for installing the thermometer:
(1) The appropriate temperature measurement point should be selected to make the temperature measurement point representative, and it is convenient for the operator to observe;
(2) The temperature package of the thermometer should be as deep as possible into the pressure vessel or close to the container wall. When the temperature of the liquid is measured, the insertion depth of the temperature package should not be less than 150mm;
(3) For the case where the temperature of the medium in the pressure vessel changes drastically, the hysteresis effect should be taken into consideration when performing temperature measurement;
(4) The thermometer should be installed in a place that is easy to work, free from collisions, and reduces vibration;
(5) The newly installed thermometer should be qualified by the national metrology department.
Chapter III Basic knowledge of the retort machine
Section 1 Classification of Sterilizers
retort machine classification and selection principles:
There are five kinds of control methods, which are divided into five types: manual control type, electric automatic control type, computer automatic control type, computer semi-automatic control type, and computer automatic control type (remote control type).
1, manual control type
All valves and pumps are manually controlled, including adding water, heating, holding, and cooling.
2, electrical self-control type
The pressure is controlled by the electric contact pressure gauge (double meter 1 control row, 1 control compensation), the temperature is controlled by the sensor (pt100) and the inlet temperature controller (accuracy is ±1 °C), and the cooling process is manually operated.
3, computer self-control type
The PLC and text display are used to process the collected pressure sensor signal and temperature signal, which can store the sterilization process with high control precision and temperature control up to ±1 °C. (Mainly control the qi, exhaust, temperature, time) Manual operation.
4, computer semi-automatic control type
All processes have PLC and touch screen control, which can store the sterilization process. The operator only needs to press the start button. After the sterilization is completed, the alarm will be automatically performed, and the temperature control accuracy can reach ±0.5°C. (The whole sterilization process has formed a digital, mechanized) basically reached a fingertip. (Remove in and out of the goods and switch the pot door)
5, computer automatic control type (remote control type)
On the basis of semi-automatic computer, the whole machine and the front and rear conveyor lines are automatically connected. The whole machine has automatic feeding and discharging, automatic switch pot door, the inner rail of the pot can be automatically retracted before and after, and the whole machine can be digitalized and mechanized to form a remote control. Or operation, to identify the basis for the unmanned operation of the workshop. The use of remote control saves time for after-sales service.
Classification from sterilization method
1, static steam retort machine
Steam retort machine
The static retort is a batch-by-batch, non-stirred pressure vessel for sterilizing food packaged in a sealed container. Usually, the containers are stacked or mixed in a sterilization rack, a cage basket, a sterilization cart, a basket, a sterilization tray, and the retort machine is pushed in or out. When sterilized, the container does not move and is thus named “stationary sterilizing pot”. When the basket is basketed, a stationary sterilizing pot that places one basket on the top surface of the other basket is called a ‘vertical pot’. A stationary sterilizing pot that places one basket next to the other basket is called a ‘horizontal pot’. Some models of stationary retort operations do not use a container support system. These retort pots are referred to as ‘cageless sterilizer pots’. The heating medium used in the retort machine, as described in this chapter, is steam.
In order to obtain good sterilization results, the correct device and operation of the retort machine is necessary. The steam supply should be sufficient to allow the sterilizer to rise to the sterilizing temperature within a reasonable time. If the container is cooled in the pan, the water supply should be sufficient to achieve adequate and uniform cooling in a reasonable amount of time. Since such retort machines sterilize the product under pure steam conditions, the venting holes are designed, installed and operated so that the air is removed from the retort machine at the start of the sterilization timing.
2, pressurized static retort machine
The term “overpressure” refers to the pressure applied to a retort that exceeds the pressure applied by the heating medium at a given temperature. In a steam sterilizer, the pressure at 250 °F (121.1 °C) is approximately 15 psig (103.4 kPa), any application
The pressure above the 15 psig (103.4 kPa) applied to the sterilizer is referred to as overpressure.
The retort system may operate at a pressure above 10-20 psig (68.9-137.9 kPa) above the steam generation pressure at a given temperature. During the sterilization cycle, the system is pressurized by introducing air or additional steam.
Due to the difference in packaging structure and/or type of seal, the tolerance of the container to internal pressure may be limited, and pressurization is required during the sterilization process to maintain the integrity of certain containers. The internal pressure in the vessel will be greater than the pressure of the pure steam at this sterilization temperature. Some examples of overpressure sterilized containers are semi-rigid plastic containers with heat-sealed lids or double-layer metal crimps, flexible bags, metal plates and glass bottles.
Different types of sterilizing pots have been designed for sterilization to provide a pressurized method. The heating medium used is:
— Water, the container is completely submerged in water.
— Water, water spray on the top of the container.
— Water spray combined with steam/air.
— Steam/air mixture.
Type of pressurized sterilizer
(1). Fully immersed sterilizer using air pressure
In a water sterilizer that was completely submerged with air pressure, all containers were completely submerged in water. Water is
Heating medium, compressed air is an overpressure source. The retort machine can be a horizontal structure or a vertical structure. The temperature sensing head of the temperature indicating device must be underwater during the entire sterilization process. There are two ways to provide adequate circulation for a fully immersed sterilizer. For vertical sterilizers, compressed air can be used to promote water circulation and ensure adequate heat distribution. Whether it is a horizontal or vertical sterilizer, water can be mechanically circulated in the sterilizer – using a water pump – to provide sufficient heat distribution.
(2). Steam pressurized complete water immersion retort machine
All containers in the steam-pressed fully immersed sterilizer were completely submerged in water. Water is the heating medium and the extra steam is the source of overpressure. The retort machine is horizontal. These retort pots have some unique measuring instruments and operating characteristics. Use a pump for water circulation. Water is usually heated by direct injection of steam through an external mixing chamber. The steam is also introduced from the top of the sterilizing pot above the water surface for pressurization.
(3). Water spray or water spray water retort machine
Some sterilizers are designed to use only a small amount of water that is not fully immersed during the sterilization process.
Instead of a container, spray or spray on the container. One type of retort is to draw water from the bottom of the sterilizer and reheat the container through the water spray nozzles at the top and middle of the sterilizer to heat or cool the container. The water is internally heated by a vapor diffusion tube and pressurized with air. The heating medium is a mixed water spray, steam and air. The cooling water is introduced into the retort machine at the end of the sterilization cycle. Other water heating and circulation methods can also be used in the water spray retort machine. Another type of system uses a water distribution system located at the top of the retort to heat or cool the water and spray the container from top to bottom. Air acts as an overpressure source. The water is heated by an external heat exchanger and circulated by a pump in this system. When the sterilization is completed, the sterilizing hot water is cooled by an external heat exchanger as cooling water.
4). Steam / air retort machine
Some retort pots use a steam/air mixture as the heating medium. The steam in the mixture heats the product and the air acts as an overpressure source. A high speed blower is installed at the front or rear of the retort to maintain a uniform mixing of steam and air and to circulate the mixture between the vessels.
There are four types from the tank structure:
1, single tank retort machine
2, double-layer retort machine
3, double pot parallel retort machine
4, three pot parallel sterilizer
5, vertical retort machine
6, electric steam dual-use retort machine
7, rotary sterilizer
There are three types from the pot material:
1, all stainless steel
3, carbon steel
Container category: Class I
Design pressure: 0.35MPa
Working pressure: ≤ 0.25MPa
Pressure of the test kettle: 0.44MPa
Design temperature: 145 ° C
Working temperature: ≤121°C
Volume: 0.6-6.4 cubic meters
Medium: water, steam
Pot wall thickness: 12mm
The second section of the retort machine purchase
retort machine selection principle
1. Mainly choose from temperature control accuracy and heat distribution uniformity. If the product requires strict temperature, especially for export products, because the heat distribution is very uniform, computer automatic retort machine should be selected as much as possible. The temperature control and pressure control of the computer semi-automatic retort machine are the same as the computer automatic, but the price is 1/3 of the computer automatic. Generally, an electric semi-automatic retort machine can be selected. The manual retort machine is difficult to sterilize, and the temperature control and pressure control are all done manually. The appearance of the food is difficult to grasp, and the can (bag) and the crushing rate are high.
2, if the product is gas-containing packaging or the product appearance requirements are more stringent, you should choose computer automatic or computer semi-automatic retort machine.
3, if the product is a glass bottle or tinplate, because the temperature rise and temperature reduction requirements are required to control, so try not to choose a double-layer retort machine.
4. If you consider energy saving, you can choose double-layer retort machine, which is characterized in that the upper tank is a hot water tank, the lower tank is a treatment tank, and the hot water of the upper tank is reused, which can save a lot of steam, and is suitable for daily output exceeding 10 tons. Food production enterprise.
5. If the output is small or there is no boiler, you can consider using the electric steam dual-purpose retort machine. The principle is that the steam is generated by electric heating of the lower tank and the upper tank is sterilized.
6. If the product has a high viscosity and the product needs to be rotated during the sterilization process, you should choose a rotary retort machine.
The third section of the retort machine daily inspection and maintenance
The automatic retort machine consists of three parts: the pot body, the connecting pipe and the automatic control panel.
The composition of the pot body: the pot body is composed of a head, a cylinder body, a sealing ring, a movable flange, a pot door and a pot door turntable, and the pot is provided with a track and a sound-absorbing duct, a silencer and the like.
Head: The crown of the ball at the back of the pot, the connecting part, called the head.
Cylinder: The cylindrical part of the middle part of the pot, collectively called the cylinder.
Sealing ring: The annular rubber ring at the mouth of the pot acts as a seal during operation.
Movable flange: The part connecting the cylinder and the pot door, which acts as a tight lock and opens the pot door.
Connecting pipes and instruments: facing the retort machine body and the operation surface, from top to bottom, the recovery pipeline, the hot water pipeline, the cold water pipeline and the steam pipeline, respectively, corresponding to the automatic control valve, in turn, the recovery valve, Hot water valve, cold water valve and steam valve. The front part of the pot body is a drain pipe, which is controlled by a drain valve to discharge water from the pot.
The lower part of the pot body is connected by a three-way pipe. The outside is the inlet of water and steam, and the circulation of water flow when the circulating pump is running.
The upper part has an air supply pipe, an exhaust pipe and a safety valve.
There is a relief valve at the rear. The pressure in the pot is released, and the pressure in the pot is connected to the atmospheric pressure.
The water level gauge is connected to the upper and lower parts of the pot to identify the water level in the pot. The water level gauge is equipped with a probe, and the probe is connected with the automatic control system. It is one eye of the automatic control system.
There are sensors (temperature and pressure) on the top of the pot. The temperature and pressure in the pot are formed into a database through its induction, and are displayed on the control panel by the processing of the CPU.
The thermometer and pressure gauge serve as a reference (preventing sensor failure).
Automatic control panel: It is the command system in the operation of the retort machine, and its internal structure is complicated.
The main points to note in daily operations are:
1. Check the aging degree of the sealing ring and the firmness of the dovetail groove;
2. Check the cracking phenomenon of the dovetail groove and the corrosion of the lower part of the dovetail groove;
3. Check the collision situation between the pot door and the corresponding part of the track;
4. Check the corrosion of the weld seam of the 2/5 circumference of the lower part of the pot door and the flange of the pot door;
5. Check the erosion of the bottom of the pot by the silencer;
6. Check the collision of the head corresponding to the track after the retort machine;
7. Check the corrosion of the inner wall of the pot corresponding to the weld of the pot support;
8. Check the corrosion of the inner wall of the pot corresponding to the support mechanism of the pot door and the weld seam of the pot body;
9. Check the wear of the pot wall on both sides of the pot;
10. Check the corrosion of the part of the pot corresponding to the exhaust port of the safety valve.
Section 4 Sterilization Process and Principle
The process is divided into several stages: injection, temperature rise, constant temperature and constant pressure, displacement recovery, soaking and drainage. In addition, some products need to be flushed.
Injection: The hot water of 80-90 °C is injected into the pot through the hot water pipe to reach 95 cm (that is, when the high water level light is on) the process ends.
Heating: The hot water of 80-90 °C is used together with the semi-finished product to raise the temperature to a constant temperature with steam within 12-15 minutes. (In winter, the common intestine is 115 ° C, the summer is 120 ° C, and the new product has other regulations.) The pressure in the pot is proportional to the temperature during the heating process.
Constant temperature and constant pressure: This stage is the key to ham sausage sterilization. The temperature and time must be kept under the conditions required by the process. The implementation should not be a one-and-a-half degree gap. It is the most stringent process in the process requirements, and the pressure is maintained at 0.25 MPa.
Displacement recovery: After the end of the constant temperature, the process of cooling the ham intestine by injecting cold water and recovering hot water should ensure that the pressure is stable at no less than 0.23 MPa to prevent the product from breaking the bag.
Soaking: Circulate the cold water in the pot through the circulating pump to lower the temperature of the ham center and ensure the uniform temperature of the product.
Drainage: The drain valve is opened, compressed air is added, and the cool water in the pot is drained to facilitate the pan.
The principle of sterilization: using water as the medium, using steam to heat up, so that the temperature of the center of the ham sausage enters the process temperature to ensure that the bacteria in the intestines are completely killed. (F value can not exceed the standard, controlled within the process requirements) to ensure that the ham sausage does not have the problem of expansion bag during the shelf life. Therefore, the sterilization process is the key in the production of ham sausage. Only the strict implementation of the sterilization process parameters can ensure the sterilization effect and ensure the sterilization quality.
Chapter IV Operation Method of Automatic retort machine
The operation of the automatic retort machine is a very technical work. In addition to the strong sense of responsibility of the operator, the operator must be familiar with the performance and operation skills of the retort machine. After thoroughly understanding the retort machine, the operation can be performed. To do the various inspections, the operation of the retort machine is described in detail in six aspects.
Section 1 Inspection before entering the pot
This is the work that must be done before the equipment is operated. The machine can not save the trouble and simplify the inspection. The inspection contents include: whether the sealing ring is intact, whether the hot water, cold water and air pressure, steam pressure meet the standard, whether the silencer is loose or blocked. There is no foreign matter in the pot.
Seal inspection is a very important step. It is related to whether the whole pot can run safely. It should be checked for aging, cracks and peeling from the dovetail groove, especially the lower part of the pot.
Check whether the hot water temperature is reached, whether the pressure is normal, the cold water pressure is not less than 0.4 MPa, the steam pressure is 0.7 MPa, the hot water pressure is 0.3 MPa, and the compressed air is not less than 0.4 MPa.
There is no foreign matter in the pot: If the product is to be cleaned, it will not kill the paste and cause quality problems.
Section 2 Operation points when entering and leaving the pot
The semi-finished products with the same specifications or processes (the same sterilization parameters) as the three cars are placed in the order according to the order in which they are placed.
When entering the pot, carefully check the specifications for each semi-finished product, and ensure that it is the same specification or the same sterilization process parameters before entering the pot to prevent the mixing of the specifications.
When entering the pot, ensure personal safety and the stability of the vehicle. It is strictly forbidden to enter and exit the pot by a single person. At least two people should cooperate to avoid overturning. After the machine takes out the ticket, the track is good, the cover is covered, and the front is smoothly moved forward. Advance, if the track interface is not flat, you can stand two people on both sides, lift the chassis by hand, slide it forward on the track, push it into the pot, and strictly prohibit the collision, so as to avoid bending deformation of the finished product. The three-car semi-finished product is evenly placed in the pan, and it is checked whether the muffler cut surface is exceeded, so as to prevent the finished product from being broken into pieces after being discharged from the pan.
Section 3 Control panel settings
The setting of the control panel determines the process execution, so the screen setting is very critical and there must be no errors.
In the normal automatic operation, the menu displays the parameter “one” and the parameter “two”, and the parameter “one” is called. According to the process parameters of the semi-finished product, the constant temperature is adjusted first, then the constant temperature time, the soaking time, and the oil flushing are adjusted. Time, then turn to the parameter “two” to call out the variety, specifications, and then check it again, it must be guaranteed to be correct (no modification is allowed during operation, personnel entering and leaving the pot must sign and check).
Section IV Startup process
After entering the pot, close the pot door, close the pot door, put down the safety barrier, and then prepare to start. Press “Program Reset” until “SI” appears before starting, then press the program start button and make a single operation record. And whiteboard records. (Note: Although the startup process is simple, it is not sloppy, because the entire command system starts to operate with this button, so it is necessary to check repeatedly and check the process parameters to prevent errors).
Section 5 Key Control Points and Records
After the program is started, when the temperature rises, it should be observed whether the water level on the glass tube is in place to prevent the false water level from appearing.
At the beginning of the temperature rise, the constant temperature start time should be recorded in synchronization with the screen, and it is confirmed whether the countdown starts from the process request time, and then the time at which the constant temperature ends is calculated, so as to check and then record on the whiteboard.
When the recycling phase begins to be recycled, observe whether the time is consistent with the whiteboard, the countdown ends, and the cooling water valve is open. Is the pressure in the pot stable? After everything is normal, write a record before you can leave.
Simultaneous recording is very important. The operator is busy in production. When the temperature rise ends and the temperature is over, the machine must check the operation of the equipment before the start of the pot, and carefully record as required. It is not only to check the time, but also to check the time. It is also the basis for us to use single-step operation in the event of an abnormal situation. From the quality and safety accidents that have occurred in the past sterilization process, 80% are present in these two key segments. In actual operation, the machine must be vigilant and cautious in operation.
After the program runs, the green light flashes after the water in the pot is finished. Observe the water level. After confirming the discharge, open the overflow valve to make the pressure in the pot communicate with the atmospheric pressure, then open the pot door, and then pull out the three-car finished product with the trolley. And insert the pin, put the corresponding pot number (semi-finished product placement number) on the finished product to check the quality of the finished product, whether it is oily, with scale, wrinkle, normal intestinal temperature, etc., no quality problems. Pull away, need to remind the operator is, when opening the pot door, be sure to confirm the water in the pot is finished, followed by paying attention to the pot door is slow, it is best not to stand before the pot.
Chapter V Alarms and Processing Methods
The first section of the alarm
In the operation of the retort machine, the alarms that often appear are: water level error at the start of temperature rise, too fast temperature rise, water level over limit, low temperature, over temperature setting, pressure over setting, temperature rise timeout, low pressure, and drainage failure.
Water level error alarm: As the water level in the pot fluctuates up and down when the temperature rises, the water level surface is lower than the high water level probe and an alarm occurs.
The temperature rises too fast: within 5 minutes, the temperature reaches 100 °C, that is, the alarm.
Water level overrun: During the warming and constant temperature period, the water level rises to the over limit position.
Low temperature: When the temperature is lower than 1 °C when the temperature is lower than the set temperature, it will alarm.
Temperature super setting: temperature rise or constant temperature stage, the temperature is higher than the set constant temperature 3 °C alarm, soaking stage, the temperature is higher than the set soaking temperature 10 °C, the alarm.
Pressure over-setting: After the temperature rise time exceeds 25 minutes, the alarm will be given. When the pressure is at constant temperature and recovery, the alarm will be given when the pressure is lower than 0.20 MPa.
After draining for four minutes, it is still at a high water level, which causes a drainage failure alarm.
Section II Handling of Alarms
After the alarm of the retort machine, it should be immediately rushed to the front of the pot to see the cause of the alarm. Strictly speaking, from the beginning of the alarm to the arrival of the machine, it must be within 10 seconds. After confirming the correctness, take decisive measures to deal with it frequently. Simple problems are dealt with in a timely manner, and the abnormal conditions are dealt with according to the emergency measures in Chapter 6.
General problem alarm handling:
Start the water level error alarm: open the hot water valve, add a small amount of hot water, and the alarm will be automatically eliminated when the high water level light is on.
Warm up too fast alarm: Press the muffler button to manually close the small steam stop valve. Adjust the steam flow to extend the heating time. When the constant temperature starts, the alarm display is eliminated.
The water level is over-limit: the water level exceeds the limit in the heating stage, the recovery II valve is automatically opened, some hot water is recovered, the water level drops to the normal water level, and the recovery valve is manually opened in the constant temperature stage to recover part of the hot water or drain with the drain valve.
Low temperature: After silence, it automatically fills in temperature.
Over-temperature setting: If the temperature is not too high, do not need to cool down. After the cycle, it will automatically drop slowly. If the temperature rises above and continues to rise and is faster, immediately close the manual steam shut-off valve and then add a small amount of hot or cold water (according to the actual situation).
Pressure super setting: heating and constant temperature stage, pressure relief valve or recovery valve should be opened for pressure reduction. The pressure in the recovery stage is high. The small cooling water valve should be closed to reduce the flow of cold water to prevent overpressure operation and ensure normal pressure in the pot.
Drainage failure: An alarm is caused because the probe is dirty. After the pan is out, clean the dirt on the probe.
In short, for the alarm problem, it must not be numb, and the corresponding corrective measures should be taken immediately after the alarm.
Chapter VI Emergency Measures
Section 1 Processing of Program Disorders
Program turbulence is one of the most dangerous anomalies in sterilizer operation. If the treatment is not timely or the method is improper, it will cause great losses and serious consequences.
Program turbulence is caused by a variety of causes, such as: electromagnetic interference, loose terminals, damage to individual electronic components in the control cabinet, and problems with the internal data processing system of the computer that we cannot know.
When the program is found to be disordered, such as in the low temperature stage, it can be processed according to the “single step key”. For example, in the high temperature stage, it should be contacted with the squad leader or other robots in time, and then take effective treatment measures.
At the beginning of the constant temperature, if there is an error in the countdown, you should contact the squad leader in time to confirm that there is no error and then use a single step operation to prevent erroneous operation caused by hurriedness. At this time, the record should be accurate, and the start and end time is good, so that after the time is up, the “single step” is recycled.
At the beginning of the recovery, direct drainage should be discovered in time. This can be done by rotating the “Program Control” button to the “Single Step” position. Then adjust the control panel to “single step page” and adjust the process segment to the replacement process, then start the program and recycle according to the record.
The procedure is confusing, the situation is complicated, and it is calm and accurate after the discovery. It is handled quickly and steadily. Remember to ensure that the temperature and pressure do not fluctuate too much and control it within the scope of the process as much as possible.
Section 2 The seal ring suddenly breaks
In the injection or heating stage break, the temperature should be cooled out of the pot, and other pots to sterilize.
In the constant temperature stage, the hot water valve and the cold water valve should be opened while keeping the pressure in the pot at 0.2Mpa. The circulating pump is turned on to cool down and recover. After the pan is discharged, the product is treated according to the opinions of the health inspectors.
The seal ring is broken and the danger is very high. It is easy to cause a safety accident. It is important to prevent it. In principle, it is not allowed to stand in front of the pot. The secret to prevent such accidents is to carefully check the aging condition of the sealing ring before entering the pot. After the looseness, cracks and other problems are found, the sealing ring should be replaced in time; check the tightness of the dovetail groove and the sealing ring, and the retort machine for the dovetail groove is seriously corroded. Should be shut down for repair or report to the relevant departments for scrapping, never run with the disease, in case of any accident, the machine must not have a chance. After the break is discovered, the machine must not run away because of fear. It should be managed to wrap around the operation panel and deal with it promptly and decisively to ensure the stability of temperature and pressure to avoid large losses.
Section III Water stop, power outage, stop steam
Water, electricity, and steam are divided into two situations. One is to stop water, electricity, and steam in the plan; the other is to suddenly stop water, electricity, and steam.
If the water, electricity and steam are stopped within a short period of time, all the operators should listen to the squad leader or workshop arrangement, and enter the semi-finished products in stages according to the size of the specifications, avoiding the important stage and ensuring the smooth progress of product quality and production.
Sudden power outage:
1. In the state of power failure, the power should be stopped. If the time is long, the semi-finished products should take measures to spread the ice or cool down into the cold storage.
2. In case of power failure during operation or constant temperature, the operation of each pot should be carefully observed to ensure the pressure in the pot is stable. It is found that the jogging pressure should be quickly cut off to release the manual valve and maintain the pressure inside the pot. Due to the low pressure of the compressed air, the pressurized manual valve should be quickly cut off to maintain the pressure inside the pot.
3, carefully observe the operation of each pot, make a record, after the call, you can quickly deal with:
(1) Press the “Program Reset” button before the constant temperature state to display the “S I” letter, and then start according to the program;
(2) After the call, if the temperature is over or the temperature is over time, the single step procedure should be quickly adjusted and recycled. And accurately record the timeout for future investigation.
(3) In the state of recycling, soaking and draining when calling, take a single step to recover, soak and drain.
Sudden water stop:
1. Stop water when injecting or entering the pot. Stop the pot quickly. If the water is stopped for a long time, drain the pan quickly and cool it with ice or cool it into the cold storage.
2. When heating or constant temperature, if it does not affect the recovery, continue to heat up or maintain a constant temperature.
3. Stop the supply of cold water in the state of recycling. Open hot water valve, drain valve, manual drain cooling (to ensure that the pressure inside the pot can not drop to 0.2MPa)
Suddenly stop the steam:
If the steam is stopped in the state of being injected or put into the pot, it should be quickly stopped or drained out of the pan and cooled. When the heating section is stopped for a long time, it should be recycled in a single step and cooled down after the pan.
Section 4 Silencer off
When the temperature rises, the muffler will fall off. After stopping, it should be manually cooled and drained, and then the other pot will be sterilized.
When the constant temperature starts or the temperature is removed, the steam shut-off valve should be closed to a small temperature and the temperature can be adjusted.
Section 5 Temperature too high and cool down operation
If the temperature inside the pot is too high, it should be treated calmly when it needs to cool down. It should be turned on to open the cold water valve or hot water valve. Do not open the cold water valve at once to avoid excessive temperature drop.
Section 6 False water level
1. During the drainage process, when the water level is lower than the high water level, the high water level or over-limit water level light will not be extinguished, and the low water level light will be on, and the high water level light will still be extinguished. The high water level light should be cleaned.
2. There is foreign matter or dirty in the glass tube of the water level gauge: when in the soaking section, press the manual switch to close the upper and lower connecting valves of the water level gauge, open the corresponding right position valve of the water level gauge, and drain the water level gauge. After the water, use a wrench to remove the right end nut on the water level gauge, cover the opening with something, and then open the valve of the lower right cross tube, so that the water passes from the bottom of the pot through the bottom of the water level gauge to the horizontal tube, from the bottom of the glass tube Drain the debris at the opening and screw on the nut.
Note: The blockage formed by the long-term accumulation in the horizontal pipe of the water level gauge can be drained by removing the lower drain valve or opening the drain valve, and the maintenance and maintenance of the sterilizer is carried out frequently to ensure the normal use of the water level gauge and reduce the malignancy caused by the false water level. ACCIDENT.
Section VII Sensor Failure
The sensor is the data source of the automatic control system. If it fails, it will send out an error message due to the data processing library, resulting in abnormal operation. After the discovery, manual or single-step operation according to the situation, timely replacement or repair after the pan.
As an excellent sterilizing machine hand, carefully observe the operation of the sterilizing pot through the eyes, ears and nose hands, and find problems and hidden dangers in time. At the same time, it should be operated smoothly and carefully observed during operation. The abnormal situation should be handled quickly, correctly and decisively.
Chapter VII Judgment and Analysis of Sterilization Quality Accidents
During the operation of the retort machine, due to irresistible external factors, equipment factors and human factors, quality and safety accidents will bring serious economic losses to the enterprise, analyze the quality accident phenomenon, find the cause of the accident, and sum up the experience. Lessons, through the surface phenomenon of things to see the essence, can avoid the occurrence of the next problem, mastering certain accident common sense has a strong guiding significance for future production.
Section 1 Identification of broken bag quality accidents
First, the product is observed after the pan, the product has sporadic bag breaking phenomenon, the machine number is indefinite, almost every bag has a broken bag product, which is a problem with the quality of the casing, and has nothing to do with the retort machine;
Second, the product is observed after the pan, the product has sporadic bag breaking phenomenon, the machine number, or one, or two, to see the heat sealing seam has obvious heat sealing or heat sealing phenomenon, this is the problem of heat sealing of the ligation machine. It is necessary to promptly notify the ligation process adjustment;
Third, the product is observed after the pan, the bottom of the squat has a concentrated bag breaking phenomenon, and the product is relatively messy, this bag breaking phenomenon is when the muffler blows the product when the temperature rises, because the muffler is blocked or the muffler cover is not blocked. Device
4. After the product is out of the pan, observe that the topmost bag is almost completely broken, and the broken bag product is not formed or the surface color of the product is white. The broken bag product is fish-like. This bag-breaking phenomenon is that the device is heating up at 100 degrees. During the above period, the pressure suddenly dropped; (check the computer monitoring curve verification)
5. After the product is out of the pan, observe the top few and almost all the broken bags. The surface color of the broken bag product is flesh-colored. The broken bag product has a fish-like shape or only a slit. This bag-breaking phenomenon is a sudden drop in pressure during the recycling process. Caused; (can check the computer monitoring curve verification)
Sixth, after the product is out of the pan, it is observed that almost all of the three-car products are broken, no machine number, no rules. This kind of bag-breaking phenomenon is caused by excessive heating and untimely processing; (check the computer monitoring curve verification)
Section 2 Identification of other quality accidents
1. After the product is out of the pan, observe that the finished product is dark in color, and the taste is obviously confusing and bitter. This kind of quality accident is caused by overtime time; (check the computer monitoring curve verification)
Second, after the product is out of the pan, observe that the finished product has lighter color or fresher color, and the taste is obviously fresh and brittle. This quality accident is caused by insufficient constant temperature or low temperature; (check the computer monitoring curve verification)
Third, after the product is out of the pan, there are wrinkles in the finished product, mainly due to the long recovery time;
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